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Laurendale Associates


Working With MIDI
For Church Musicians

Laurendale Associates


Table of Contents

"MIDI" Stands for 1
* MIDI Allows Musicians To 2
* MIDI Cables 2
* MIDI Plugs 3
* IN, OUT, and THRU 3
* MIDI Ports 4
* MIDI Channels 4
* How MIDI Messages Travel 5
* MIDI Modes 6
* Computer Systems: Receiving, Processing/Storing and Sending Information

6

* MIDI Interface 7
MIDI Messages 8
* The Sum of the Parts 8
* MIDI Messages--a Series of Numbers--Not Sounds 8
* A Single MIDI Message 9
* How Fast Do MIDI Messages Travel? 10
* From Music Score to MIDI Commands 10
* Channel Voice Messages 11
* Program Changes/Patches 13
* MIDI Controller Messages 13
MIDI System Configurations 15
* MIDI Configuration No. 1 15
* MIDI Configuration No. 2 16
* MIDI Configuration No. 3 17
* Audio Concerns 18
* MIDI Configuration No. 4 19
MIDI Implementation Charts 20
* Reading a MIDI Implementation Chart 21
MIDI Keyboards 24
* MIDI Keyboards Are Used for 24
MIDI Church Organs 26
* Using the MIDI Organ To Control a Sound Module 26
* Controlling a MIDI Sound Module from the MIDI Organ 26
* Program Changes 27
* Storing and Sending Program Changes (Standard Memory) 27
* Controlling a MIDI Organ from a MIDI Keyboard 28
* Saving and Restoring Combination Memories 28
* Modifying Existing Organs for MIDI -- Retrofits 28
* Assigning Channels 29
* Limit of MIDI Sounds per Organ Manual 30
General MIDI 31
* How General MIDI Devices Differ 34
* General MIDI Prerecorded Music Sequences 36
* Comparing General MIDI Files with Prerecorded Music 36
* Making Choral Study Tapes 37
Sound Modules 38
* Sound Module--"A synthesizer without a keyboard" 38
* Storing the Sound Canvas's Settings to a Sequencer 38
* Samplers 39
* GS Standard 39
Sequencers 40
* Sequencer--"A computer without a monitor" 40
* Playback 41
* Punch-Ins 41
* Applications 41
* Program Playback 41
* MIDI Patch Bay 42
Notation Programs 45
* Problems with MIDI and Notation Programs 45
* Reproducing the Performance 46
* Quantization 46
Sequencing Programs 47
* Saving Music to Disk 48
* Types of MIDI Files 48
Copyright Law 52
* Copyright Act of 1976 52
* Copyright and Rehearsal/Public Performance Sequences 53
Choral Music in Sequence 58
* MIDI in Rehearsal 59
* MIDI in Live Performance 59
* MIDI and Contemporary Christian Music 59
* Working with a Sequencing Program 60
* Working with Choral Music Which Can Be Performed with Optional MIDI Resources * 60
* Create a Sequence 61
* MIDI Orchestration 61
* Tracks and Channels 62
* Selecting the Tempo 64
* Adjusting Dynamics 64
* Ongoing Adjustments 64
* MIDI File Worksheet 64
* "Humanizing" a Sequence 67
* MIDI File Log 68
* Anthem: "How Excellent Your Name, O Lord" 69
MIDI Files 81
* Open a MIDI File 81
* Play a MIDI File/Sequence 83
* Modify Program Changes/Patches 85
* Save a File 88
* Change the MIDI Channels 90
* Set a Tempo Change 92
* Change Smoothly from One Tempo to Another 95
Conclusions 99
Appendix 1: Choral Music with Optional *
* MIDI Support 100
Appendix 2: Books, Magazines & Videos *
* About MIDI 103
* Books 103
* Magazines 104
* Videos 104
Appendix 3: Sources of MIDI Files 105
Appendix 4: Selected MIDI Products 106
* Allen MDS-Expander II 106
* Gilbransen Digital Hymnal 106
* MidiScan 107
* Rodgers PR-300 107
* Roland/Rodgers W-50 107
* Roland Sound Canvas, SCP-55 108
* SynchroVoice MidiVox 108
* Synthia 108
* Coda Vivace--Personal Accompanist 109
Appendix 5: MIDI & Music Resources on the Internet 110
* Web Sites 110
* Usenet Newsgroups 111
* Electronic Mailing Lists 112
* E-mail Addresses 114
Index 115


About The Author

Bob Van Howten earned his A.A. in music from Los Angeles Valley College, Van Nuys, California, B.A. in music, magna cum laude, and Standard Secondary Teaching Credential, Life, from UCLA, and his M.A. in music from California State University, Los Angeles.

Bob has taught music at all levels--from elementary and secondary (instrumental and choral) through college (music education and teacher training) and adult school (choral and orchestra) and was recently elected a member of ASCAP. He has directed church choirs and music programs for over 25 years and, as of this writing, is Director-Organist for adult and children's choirs at St. Mark Episcopal Parish, Van Nuys, Califomia.

Musically, Bob's primary area of interest involves the development of effective performance arrangements of classic choral works for choirs with limited musical resources. To this end, he has produced a series of arrangements of choral masterworks for small choirs that retain the characteristics of the original music, yet can be easily learned and performed. Additionally, he has created supplementary MIDI performance-accompaniment files to facilitate and enhance the presentation of each of these pieces.

In addition to his musical activities, Bob works in the rehabilitation of deaf persons who have received cochlear implants and serves as newsletter editor for the San Fernando Valley Chapter of the Choral Conductors Guild. His e-mail address is bvh@earthlink.net.

music@laurendale.com

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